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Citation guides -- Chicago

Citing Sources -- the Chicago style

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The following tabs offer examples of citations according to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, 2010.  Though technically one citation style, Chicago has two forms:  the bibliography style and the author-date style, which is also known as the reference list style.

  • The bibliography style involves either footnotes or endnotes in the text of your paper, AND a bibliography of the sources you used at the end of your paper.
  • The author-date style involves citations in parentheses within the text of your paper, AND a list of references at the end of your paper.
  • IMPORTANT: A bibliography and a list of references are very similar to each other, but do have a few differences in how they are presented, so be sure to follow Chicago's guidelines on how to formulate each.

In her book, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Kate Turabian introduces the two styles in the following passage:

The two most common forms of citation [are] called notes-bibliography style, or simply bibliography style (used widely in the humanities and in some social sciences), and parenthetical citations-reference list style, or reference list style (used in most social sciences and in the natural and physical sciences). If you are not certain which style to use in a paper, consult your instructor (Turabian, 15.3).

In the pages that follow, you will find a tabbed structure presenting examples of citing different types of media in both the bibliography style and the author-date style.

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